REVIEW: A Brief Introduction to Microencapsulation

Introduction

The containment of a  core material inside of a  small capsule is called  microencapsulation. A polymeric material coates liquid or solid substances to protect polymeric material from circumambient area1. Microcapsules size vary between 50 nm to 2 mm2. Microcapsule’s size and structure differs according to core material being solid, liquid or gas as in figure 12

Figure 1: (a) Mononuclear microcapsules carrying solid material, (b) Aggregated microcapsules carrying liquid material2.
Figure 2: Schematic presentation of a microcapsule2.

Coating material must be adhesive to the core material  in order to cover core material properly. Coating materials must work as an harmonious aid to core material in required strength, flexibility, impermeability, optical properties, and stability. Its release must be  controllable under required conditions1.

Figure 3 : Coating material examples1

Water Soluble MaterialsWater Insoluble Materials Waxes and Lipid Materials
GelatinCalcium alginateParaffin
Gum ArabicPolyethyleneCarnauba
StarchPolyamide (Nylon)Spermaceti
PolyvinylpyrrolidoneSiliconesBeeswax
Polyacrylic acidPolymethacrylateStearic acid
Carboxymethyl-celluloseCellulose nitrateGlyceryl stearates
Figure 4 : Alginate coated adipose stem cells extracted from (A) rat and (B) human3
 
Figure 5 : Confocal laser scanning microscope image of rhodamine-labeled hydrogel microcapsules4.

Method

  The microencapsulation of adipose stem cells  coating with alginate is shown in figure 6. The cross- linking solution contains calcium chloride and glucose and is buffered with HEPES. Calcium chloride provides divalent cations to alginate during cross-linking. Glucose is useful for maintaining physiological osmolality of the cross-linking solution for the  adipose stem cells. HEPES is used tomaintain pH at or below pH 7.33.

Figure 6: Schematic presentation of method used for  microencapsulation of adipose stem cells3.

The generation of hydrogel microcapsules with a microfluidic system is shown in figure 7. Oligosaccharides and  peptide–starPEG were inserted through two distinct channels. The flow rates of the oil phase and Oligosaccharides and  peptide–starPEG have been set  to get required droplet formation4.

Figure 7 : Scheme of the microfluidic system used for hydrogel microcapsule generation4.

Conclusion 

Microencapsulation can be used to encapsulate different materials therefore it is useful for treatment of different diseases that occurs in various tissues. There are various methods to make microcapsules. Microcapsule generation method must be chosen carefully according to the materials that microcapsule made out of. Microcapsules can be used to deliver drug molucules, various cell types into the targeted tissue. As technology improves, microencapsulation mehods will also improve and become more effective. 

References

1. MICROENCAPSULATION. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2010;5(2):58-62.

2.  M.N. Singh, K.S.Y. Hemant, M. Ram  and HGS. Microencapsulation: A promising technique for controlled drug delivery. Res Pharm Sci. 2010;5(2):65-77.

3.  Shirae K. Leslie , Ramsey C. Kinney , Zvi Schwartz  and BDB, Abstract. Microencapsulation of Stem Cells for Therapy. In: Vol 1479. ; 2017:225-235. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-6364-5

4.  Wieduwild R, Krishnan S, Chwalek K, et al. Noncovalent Hydrogel Beads as Microcarriers for Cell Culture. Angew Chemie. 2015;127(13):4034-4038. doi:10.1002/ange.201411400

INSaFLU ve galaxyproject ile SARS-CoV-2 varyantlarının karşılaştırılması – RSG-Türkiye Aktif Üyeleri

Çalışmayı Yapanlar

  • Nazlı S. Kara, İstinye Üniversitesi
  • Meltem Kutnu, ODTÜ
  • Yasemin Utkueri, Sabancı Üniversitesi
  • Funda Yılmaz, Radbound University
  • Elif Bozlak, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna; Vienna Graduate School of Population Genetics
  • Evrim Fer, University of Arizona

Özet

2020 BioHackathon’u, var olan varyant tespit etme iş akışlarının COVID-19 için geliştirilmesi veya üretilen büyük miktardaki verinin analiz edilebilmesi için yeni iş akışları oluşturulmasına ev sahipliği yapmıştır. Bunlardan bazıları Galaxy Project, INSaFLU ve nf-core’dur. Bu iş akışları yeni nesil dizileme teknolojisi ile dizilenen genom verisini analiz eder ve anotasyonu yapılmış tek nükleotid polimorfizm (SNP) ve kısa ekle-sil (indel) varyantlarını çıktı olarak verir. Kullandıkları algoritmalara göre farklı avantaj ve dezavantajları vardır. Bu çalışmada Galaxy Project tarafından yayımlanmış SARS-CoV-2 genom varyantlarını INSaFLU iş akışıyla belirlenen varyantlarla karşılaştırmayı, böylece bu iki iş akışının performanslarını değerlendirebilmeyi amaçladık. Sonuç olarak iki iş akışı tarafından ortak olarak bulunan 600’e yakın varyant bulduk. Bu varyantların neredeyse yarısının replikaz poliprotein 1ab’de olduğunu tespit ettik. Ortak olarak bulunan varyantlarda non-synonymous varyantların synonymous varyantlardan fazla olduğu gördük. Çalışmada tespit edilen ortak ve özgün varyantlar ileriki araştırmalarda daha detaylı incelenebilir.

Tarih: 21 Haziran 2020 – 20:00 (GMT+3)

Dil: Türkçe

Aşağıdaki linkten webinara kayıt olabilirsiniz:

https://www.bigmarker.com/bioinfonet/INSaFLU-ve-galaxyproject-ile-SARSCoV2-varyantlarinin-karsilastirilmasi

Phylogenetic Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Genomes in Turkey – Aylin Bircan

Presenter

Aylin Bircan

Aylin Bircan received my BSc degree in Chemistry from Koc University in 2012. She worked in Quality Control and Assurance departments of several pharmaceutical companies. In 2018 she received my MSc degree in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics from Kadir Has University. Since 2018 September, she has been a Ph.D. student in Molecular Biology, Genetics and Bioengineering program at Sabanci University. she has been working on phylogenetic analysis of Class C GPCRs under the supervision of Dr. Ogün Adebali.

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged in Wuhan, and spread across the continents, and caused the COVID-19 pandemic. In this talk, I will talk about our recent study which focuses on comprehensive genomic analysis of the virus isolates in Turkey. We built a phylogenetic tree with globally obtained 15,277 severe SARS-CoV-2 genomes, and clustered the virus isolates based on the phylogenetic tree and previously annotated classification methods. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the first thirty SARS-CoV-2 genomes isolated and sequenced in Turkey to identify specific groups circulating in the country. Our results suggest that the first introduction of the virus to the country is earlier than the first reported case of infection. Virus genomes isolated from Turkey are scattered among most types in the phylogenetic tree. Two of the seventeen sub-clusters were found enriched with the isolates of Turkey, which possibly have spread expansively in the country. Finally, we traced virus genomes based on heir phylogenetic placements. This analysis suggested multiple independent international introductions of the virus and revealed a hub for the inland transmission.

Date: June 17th, 2020 – 2:00 pm (GMT+3)

Language: English

To register the webinar, you can visit this link:
https://www.bigmarker.com/bioinfonet/Phylogenetic-Analysis-of-SARS-CoV-2-Genomes-in-Turkey

RSG-Turkey is a member of The International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) Student Council (SC) Regional Student Groups (RSG). We are a non-profit community composed of early career researchers interested in computational biology and bioinformatics.

Contact: turkey.rsg@gmail.com

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